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ORIGINAL ARTICLE - EVALUATIVE STUDY
Year : 2015  |  Volume : 5  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 49-54

Evaluation of isoamyl 2-cyanoacrylate tissue adhesive in management of pediatric lacerations: An alternative to suturing


1 Department of Oral, Maxillofacial Surgery, Bharati Vidyapeeth Dental College and Hospital, Navi Mumbai, Maharashtra, India
2 Department of Paediatric and Preventive Dentistry, Bharati Vidyapeeth Dental College and Hospital, Navi Mumbai, Maharashtra, India

Date of Web Publication20-Jul-2015

Correspondence Address:
Vishakha N Devrukhkar
Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Bharati Vidyapeeth Dental College and Hospital, Navi Mumbai - 400 614
India
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DOI: 10.4103/2231-0746.161059

PMID: 26389034

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  Abstract 

Aims: A study was conducted to evaluate the benefits of cyanoacrylate tissue adhesive as an alternative to suturing in management of pediatric lacerations. Materials and Methods: A total of 7 patients were evaluated and followed for 3-month. The wound was evaluated on 1 st , 3 rd , and 7 th postoperative day for swelling, infection, gaping and pain and at 1 st and 3 rd postoperative month for scar evaluation. The evaluation was based on different superficial facial wound repairs (i.e., low tension) with an average length <3 cm; and if the surgeon subjectively felt that subcuticular sutures were justified to reduce wound tension, then these were used. Isoamyl 2-cyanoacrylate glue was applied over lacerated wound margins after cleaning the wound and holding together for 15 s by means of tissue holding forceps. Statistical Analysis: Statistical analysis was done using Chi-square test after collection of data. Mean and standard error were estimated from the sample. Results: The mean total time taken for skin closure was 1-2.5 min. There was no wound infection in any of the cases; only one case showed wound dehiscence on 3rd postoperative day. The cosmetic was better as there were no suture marks. Conclusion: Isoamyl 2-cyanoacrylate can be considered as excellent "no needle" alternative for closure of selected pediatric lacerations, those that are short, clean and under low tension.

Keywords: Isoamyl 2-cyanoacrylate, pediatric lacerations, suturing alternative


How to cite this article:
Devrukhkar VN, Hegde RJ, Khare SS, Saraf TA. Evaluation of isoamyl 2-cyanoacrylate tissue adhesive in management of pediatric lacerations: An alternative to suturing. Ann Maxillofac Surg 2015;5:49-54

How to cite this URL:
Devrukhkar VN, Hegde RJ, Khare SS, Saraf TA. Evaluation of isoamyl 2-cyanoacrylate tissue adhesive in management of pediatric lacerations: An alternative to suturing. Ann Maxillofac Surg [serial online] 2015 [cited 2019 Nov 17];5:49-54. Available from: http://www.amsjournal.com/text.asp?2015/5/1/49/161059


  Introduction Top


Lacerations requiring wound closure account for 30-40% of all pediatric injuries. The thought of needles, sutures or staples may be worse than the actual injury itself to a child patient. Therefore, the ideal method of wound closure in children should be not only painless but also rapid, easy to perform, safe, with few complications and should result in minimal scarring. Closures with conventional suturing techniques entirely fail to accomplish all these goals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the benefits of cyanoacrylate tissue adhesive as an alternative to suturing in management of pediatric lacerations.


  Materials and Methods Top


A prospective in vivo study of seven patients requiring wound closure after laceration in oral and maxillofacial region was conducted after getting the ethical committee clearance. Children with suitable lacerations were allocated for wound closure with isoamyl 2-cyanoacrylate.

Wounds considered for inclusion into the trial were simple lacerations that required closure, in children aged between 1 and 14 years of age. The evaluation was based on different superficial facial wound repairs (i.e., low tension) with an average length <3 cm; and if the surgeon subjectively felt that subcuticular sutures were justified to reduce wound tension, then these were used. Explanation was provided, and signed consents were obtained prior to treatment.

Specific exclusion criteria included situations where the patients had infected wounds, or with a history of any keloid, and allergy to cyanoacrylates.

Novocryl glue, an isoamyl 2-cyanoacrylate used in this study is available as single-use 0.25 ml and 0.5 ml ampoule from Alkem Laboratories Limited and manufactured by Concord Drug Limited. Novocryl is a sterile, inert, nontoxic, biodegradable, biocompatible and bacteriostatic liquid topical adhesive [Figure 1].
Figure 1: Novocryl glue - Isoamyl-2-cyanoacrylate

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The length of the laceration was measured with the help of a divider and an mm graded scale. Isoamyl 2-cyanoacrylate glue was applied over lacerated wound margins after cleaning the wound and holding together for 15 s, by means of tissue holding forceps. The glue turns opaque signifying the completion of polymerization. The applied film was kept thin. The time required for the skin closure was also noted. Though dressings are not recommended by the manufacturer, a sterile gauze dressing was given to prevent any accidental damage to the closed wound.

Patients were evaluated and followed for 3-month. The wound were evaluated on 1 st , 3 rd and 7 th postoperative day for swelling, infection, gaping and pain and at 1 st and 3 rd postoperative month for scar evaluation [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4], [Figure 5], [Figure 6] and [Figure 7].
Figure 2: Case 1 - Laceration on right cheek

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Figure 3: Case 1 - Immediate postoperative after application of novocryl

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Figure 4: Case 1 - 4th week postoperative

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Figure 5: Case 1 - 3rd month postoperative

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Figure 6: Case 2 - Laceration on chin

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Figure 7: Case 2 - Immediate postoperative

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The clinical parameters, that is, swelling, infection and gaping were evaluated as absent or present "0" and "1" respectively. Exudate was assessed from the dressing given previously. Infection was suspected in all cases with severe exudation, pus discharge, and high temperature. Gaping was measured with the help of divider and mm graded scale. Severity of pain perception was assessed via simplified Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) [1],[2] of 100 mm in length where '0' marked as "no pain" and "100" as "severe pain."

The wound was assessed for cosmesis on 1 st and 3 rd postoperative month. Hollander Cosmesis Scale looks at the presence of 6 clinical variables as step-off borders, edge inversion, contour irregularities, excess inflammation, wound margin separation, good overall appearance. A total cosmetic score was derived by adding the scores of variables. A score of 1 is given to each variable if not present in the wound, so a score of 6 was considered as optimal while 5 or less as suboptimal. [3],[4],[5],[6],[7] Parent satisfaction with wound cosmesis was recorded at the same time on a 100-mm VAS (0 = worst scar, 100 = best scar). [4],[8],[9],[10],[11]


  Results Top


Statistical analysis was done after collection of data. Mean and standard error were estimated from the sample. Children with suitable lacerations were allocated for wound closure with isoamyl 2-cyanoacrylate. A total of seven patients were evaluated and followed for 3-month.

The mean age of the patient was 6.35 ± 1.36 years (2-12). There were 5 (71.43%) boys and 2 (28.57%) girls. Mean length of the laceration ± standard error of the mean was 1.43 ± 0.13 cm. The mean total time for skin closure was 1.57 ± 0.17 (1-2.5) min [Table 1].
Table 1: Demography and baseline data of patients

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Wounds were evaluated for signs of infection, depending on presence or absence of pus. None of the cases showed wound infection on 1 st , 3 rd , and 7 th postoperative day. Only one case showed wound dehiscence on 3 rd postoperative day. Swelling was present postoperatively in all cases on 1 st , and 3 rd day. On 7 th postoperative day swelling was present in two cases [Table 2] and [Graph 1].
Table 2: Patients having swelling and complications after treatment

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The postoperative pain was measured using VAS by patients themselves. VAS is calibrated from 0 to 100. There were significant changes on 1 st , 3 rd , and 7 th postoperative day by analysis of variance; P < 0.05 [Table 3] and [Graph 2].
Table 3: Mean scores for pain using 0 - 100 VAS

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Patients were followed-up at 1 st month, and 3 rd month and the wound was assessed for cosmesis using Hollander Cosmesis Scale and VAS, calibrated from 0 to 100.

The minimum wound cosmesis using Hollander Cosmesis Scale score was 5, and a maximum score was 6 with a mean of 5.87 ± 0.14.

Parent satisfaction with wound cosmesis was recorded on a 100-mm VAS. At 1-month; the minimum score was 60, and a maximum was 90 with a mean of 81.43 ± 4.59, and at 3-month minimum was 70 and maximum was 100 with a mean of 88.57 ± 4.04. This difference was statistical significant with P > 0.05 [Table 4] and [Graph 3].
Table 4: Mean values for Hollander and Cosmesis scale

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  Discussion Top


Discovery of cyanoacrylates by Ardis in 1949 [12] and subsequent use of this material in surgery by Coover et al. in 1959 [13] revolutionized nonconventional suturing technique.

Isoamyl 2-cyanoacrylate is an advanced gamma sterilized, nonpigmented, nontoxic, nonallergic, and biostatic tissue adhesive. It helps in rapid wound closure with minimal scarring, and reduces the risk of postsurgical infection and trauma, apart from being simple to use, and showing a demonstrable safety,[14] thus providing effective wound healing with minimal risk. The mechanism with which isoamyl 2-cyanoacrylate acts is by getting converted into a polymer on coming in contact with moisture, and though, by itself, it is an inert material, it solidifies rapidly within 5-10 s.

In our study, a total of seven patients were treated for lacerated wound closure with isoamyl 2-cyanoacrylate. Various parameters like swelling, infection, gaping, pain and scar were included to study the outcome.

Many papers have shown good cosmesis and rapid time for a laceration closure using glue. [15],[16],[17],[18],[19] Pain was one of the most serious reasons for anxiety in patients and parents. The other factors could be explained as a stressful environment and separation of the children from the parents. Isoamyl 2-cyanoacrylate was applied on small children while they lay on the lap of the parents, and the parents lay on stretchers so as not to distribute their trusted feeling. There was generally no need for local anesthesia injection, which were essential for the traditional wound repair on children. In the study by Matin, the mean time taken for skin closure in adhesive glue group is faster than skin suturing group (150 s vs. 360 s) [10] In the present study, the mean time taken for skin closure was 1.57 ± 0.17 min, which is much faster and time saving.

There are varying reports regarding the antibacterial properties of cyanoacrylate glue. [20] The glue has a bacteriostatic effect against Gram-positive bacteria while no activity has been reported against gram-negative bacteria. [21] There have been no reports of any carcinogenic effects. [22] In the present study, none of the cases showed wound infection at 1 st , 3 rd , and 7 th postoperative days. Ong et al. in their study observed that there was no incidence of wound infection in any of the cases in glue and suture group, [11] whereas Rosin et al. [23] reported a case of wound infection with N-butyl 2-cyanoacrylate, and he relates it to the improper approximation of the wound edges.

Higher cyanoacrylates like N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate and isoamyl 2-cyanoacrylate degrade at a slower rate than those with shorter side chained ones. These materials are less histotoxic due to their slow degradation. [24] As they breakdown slowly it is not advisable to apply a multiple continuous layers between two tissue surfaces. The tissue edges should be approximated before the adhesive is applied over the junction. When the edges are improperly approximated, adhesive material may enter into the wound thereby interfering with edge approximation leading to wound dehiscence. Many studies reported the incidence of wound dehiscence with N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate. Qureshi et al. reported two of 102 cases of partial dehiscence after general and laparoscopic surgeries, and he related its occurrence due to the inadequate drying of the skin edges before the application of the adhesive. [25]

Ong et al., compared tissue adhesive 2-octylcyanoacrylate and suture for closure of surgical incisions in children and reported none of the cases with wound dehiscence. [11] In our study, only one case showed wound dehiscence on 3 rd postoperative day which could have been due to inadequate undermining and approximation of the tissue edges. Swelling seen in all patients on 1 st , and 3 rd postoperative day can be related to injury trauma.

Pain was assessed at 1 st , 3 rd and 7 th postoperative day using VAS of 0-100 mm, as rated by the patient themselves. In the present study, pain was significantly less on 7 th postoperative day. The reasons for the reduced postoperative pain may be due to the thin layer of flexible polymer shielding the wound from all the physical agents such as air current and it is also possible that formaldehyde which is one of the degradation products of cyanoacrylate may be absorbed in minute quantities causing a local anesthetic effect at the distal nerve endings. The earlier studies by Zempsky, et al., Arunachalam et al., and Quinn et al., have compared the postoperative pain using VAS of 0-100 and have shown less postoperative pain in adhesive glue group but of no significance. [11],[12]

Quinn et al. compared 1-year cosmetic outcome of wounds treated with octylcyanoacrylate tissue adhesive and monofilament sutures and correlated the early, 3-month, and 1-year cosmetic outcomes. He found no difference in the cosmetic outcomes of traumatic lacerations treated with octylcyanoacrylate tissue adhesive and sutures. [7]

In the present study, at 3 rd month postoperatively the scar was esthetically highly satisfactory as compared to 1 st month on Visual Analogue Cosmesis Scale. The scar was thin and supple. Patient's family acceptance was noteworthy and reacted favorably to having the wound closed by the nonsuture technique. Pain and discomfort at the site of the laceration were considerably less as judged by the verbal response of the patients. All patients were spared of the fear and pain of suture removal. No skin reaction to the glue was noted in any case. Cyanoacrylate tissue adhesive was found to be an effective alternative replacing skin sutures employed in low-skin tension wound management.


  Conclusion Top


The cyanoacrylate tissue adhesive isoamyl 2-cyanoacrylate are excellent "no needle" alternative for closure of selected pediatric lacerations, those that are short, clean and under low tension. Cyanoacrylates have a number of advantages over conventional suture like their fast and painless application, rapid setting which reduces the total quality time, their antibacterial properties. Cyanoacrylate itself acts as a water proof dressing and helps in reduction in the number of follow-up visits. As they do not require any needles, accidental needle stick injuries are prevented. However, there are certain disadvantages of cyanoacrylates like their less tensile strength and chances of the adhesive seepage if edges are not properly approximated.

In this study, it has been observed that the efficacy of cyanoacrylate in the closure of surgical wounds is comparable to the previously quoted studies.

Despite the encouraging advantages of the tissue adhesives, it is important to remember that wound closure is only part of the wound management in these children. Many wounds require irrigation, debridement, and deep sutures, which may require time, conscious sedation or anesthesia.

In summary, the use of isoamyl 2-cyanoacrylate is easy, and safe, with no complications, and results in equally good cosmesis. It is a viable alternative in areas such as the head, neck and face where a dressing is unsightly or difficult to apply.

 
  References Top

1.
Zempsky WT, Parrotti D, Grem C, Nichols J. Randomized controlled comparison of cosmetic outcomes of simple facial lacerations closed with Steri Strip Skin Closures or Dermabond tissue adhesive. Pediatr Emerg Care 2004;20:519-24.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Ong KS, Seymour RA. Pain measurement in humans. J R Coll Surg Edinb Irel 2004;2:15-27.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Ong J, Ho KS, Chew MH, Eu KW. Prospective randomised study to evaluate the use of DERMABOND ProPen (2-octylcyanoacrylate) in the closure of abdominal wounds versus closure with skin staples in patients undergoing elective colectomy. Int J Colorectal Dis 2010;25:899-905.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Singer AJ, Quinn JV, Clark RE, Hollander JE, TraumaSeal Study Group. Closure of lacerations and incisions with octylcyanoacrylate: A multicenter randomized controlled trial. Surgery 2002;131:270-6.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Hollander JE, Singer AJ, Valentine S, Henry MC. Wound registry: Development and validation. Ann Emerg Med 1995;25:675-85.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Bernard L, Doyle J, Friedlander SF. A prospective comparison of octyl cyanoacrylate tissue adhesive (Dermabond) and suture for the closure of excisional wounds in children and adolescents. Arch Dermatol 2001;137:1177-80.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Quinn J, Wells G, Sutcliffe T, Jarmuske M, Maw J, Stiell I, et al. Tissue adhesive versus suture wound repair at 1 year: Randomized clinical trial correlating early, 3-month, and 1-year cosmetic outcome. Ann Emerg Med 1998;32:645-9.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Arunachalam P, King PA, Orford J. A prospective comparison of tissue glue versus sutures for circumcision. Pediatr Surg Int 2003;19:18-9.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Quinn JV, Drzewiecki AE, Stiell IG, Elmslie TJ. Appearance scales to measure cosmetic outcomes of healed lacerations. Am J Emerg Med 1995;13:229-31.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Matin SF. Prospective randomized trial of skin adhesive versus sutures for closure of 217 laparoscopic port-site incisions. J Am Coll Surg 2003;196:845-53.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Ong CC, Jacobsen AS, Joseph VT. Comparing wound closure using tissue glue versus subcuticular suture for pediatric surgical incisions: A prospective, randomised trial. Pediatr Surg Int 2002;18:553-5.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Ardis AE. U.S. Patents No. 2467926 and 2467927; 1949.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.
Coover HW, Joyner FB, Shearer NH Jr, Wicker TH Jr. Chemistry and performance of cyanoacrylate adhesive. J Soc Plast Eng 1959; 15:413-417.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.
Arthaud LE, Lewellen GR, Akers WA. The dermal toxicity of isoamyl-2-cyanoacrylate. J Biomed Mater Res 1972;6:201-14.  Back to cited text no. 14
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15.
Bruns TB, Robinson BS, Smith RJ, Kile DL, Davis TP, Sullivan KM, et al. A new tissue adhesive for laceration repair in children. J Pediatr 1998;132:1067-70.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
16.
Quinn JV, Drzewiecki A, Li MM, Stiell IG, Sutcliffe T, Elmslie TJ, et al. A randomized, controlled trial comparing a tissue adhesive with suturing in the repair of pediatric facial lacerations. Ann Emerg Med 1993;22:1130-5.  Back to cited text no. 16
    
17.
Singer AJ, Quinn JV, Hollander JE. Comparison of octylcyanoacrylate and standard wound closure methods for lacerations and incisions: A multi-center trial. Acad Emerg Med 2001;8:538.  Back to cited text no. 17
    
18.
Singer AJ, Hollander JE, Valentine SM, Turque TW, McCuskey CF, Quinn JV. Prospective, randomized, controlled trial of tissue adhesive (2-octylcyanoacrylate) vs standard wound closure techniques for laceration repair. Stony Brook Octylcyanoacrylate Study Group. Acad Emerg Med 1998;5:94-9.  Back to cited text no. 18
    
19.
Elmasalme FN, Matbouli SA, Zuberi MS. Use of tissue adhesive in the closure of small incisions and lacerations. J Pediatr Surg 1995;30:837-8.  Back to cited text no. 19
    
20.
Eiferman RA, Snyder JW. Antibacterial effect of cyanoacrylate glue. Arch Ophthalmol 1983;101:958-60.  Back to cited text no. 20
[PUBMED]    
21.
Jandinski J, Sonis S. In vitro effects of isobutyl cyanocrylate on four types of bacteria. J Dent Res 1971;50:1557-8.  Back to cited text no. 21
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22.
Nagpal BM, Kumar MG, Nagi MG, Singh WC. Sutureless closure of operative skin wounds. Med J Armed Forces India 2004;60:131-3.  Back to cited text no. 22
    
23.
Rosin D, Rosenthal RJ, Kuriansky J, Brasesco O, Shabtai M, Ayalon A. Closure of laparoscopic trocar site wounds with cyanoacrylate tissue glue: A simple technical solution. J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A 2001;11:157-9.  Back to cited text no. 23
    
24.
Samuel PR, Roberts AC, Nigam A. The use of Indermil (n-butyl cyanoacrylate) in otorhinolaryngology and head and neck surgery. A preliminary report on the first 33 patients. J Laryngol Otol 1997;111:536-40.  Back to cited text no. 24
    
25.
Qureshi A, Drew PJ, Duthie GS, Roberts AC, Monson JR. n-Butyl cyanoacrylate adhesive for skin closure of abdominal wounds: Preliminary results. Ann R Coll Surg Engl 1997;79:414-5.  Back to cited text no. 25
    


    Figures

  [Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4], [Figure 5], [Figure 6], [Figure 7]
 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4]


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