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GUEST EDITORIAL
Year : 2019  |  Volume : 9  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 225-227

Mandibular Repositioning Device (MRD) and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome


Cyprus Cranio Maxillo Facial Center, 3 Dimitri Liperti Street, Cotsapa Court A, Office 302, 3090 Limassol, Cyprus

Date of Web Publication11-Dec-2019

Correspondence Address:
Zoe Nicolaou
Cyprus Cranio Maxillo Facial Center, 3 Dimitri Liperti Street, Cotsapa Court A, Office 302, 3090 Limassol
Cyprus
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DOI: 10.4103/ams.ams_255_19

PMID: 31908997

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How to cite this article:
Nicolaou Z. Mandibular Repositioning Device (MRD) and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Ann Maxillofac Surg 2019;9:225-7

How to cite this URL:
Nicolaou Z. Mandibular Repositioning Device (MRD) and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Ann Maxillofac Surg [serial online] 2019 [cited 2020 Feb 21];9:225-7. Available from: http://www.amsjournal.com/text.asp?2019/9/2/225/272594





“Maxillomandibular advancement” (MMA) surgery is widely recognized to be a highly effective surgical intervention for the treatment and management of “obstructive sleep apnea syndrome” (OSAS) in patients where “continuous positive airway pressure” (CPAP) therapy is not applicable, is intolerant, or is unsuccessful.[1],[2],[3]

Currently, MMA is used routinely to treat OSAS in patients with either dentofacial deformities or abnormal facial morphology. The success rate fluctuates between 90% and 97%.[4],[5]

The objective and subjective outcomes following MMA surgery for the treatment of patients with OSAS, indicate that surgery can be highly successful and can eliminate the use of CPAP, improving the subjective outcomes and considerably decreasing the Apnea–Hypopnea Index (AHI) score.[6]

As objective measurements can be considered the pre and post operative 'PSGs' (polysomnographs), the airway morphology (airway volume and minimal cross-sectional area), the linear changes to 'Pas B- Pogonion' and the 'PNS' length in lateral cephalograms, in OSAS patients. The subjective outcomes are suggested by the Epworth Sleepiness Scale 'ESS' before and after MMA.[6],[7],[8]

None of the reported studies include a detailed documentation of the subjective and objective measurements of all treated patients with MMA as well as the efficacy of mandibular repositioning device (MRD) as an index for future MMA surgery.

The therapeutic efficacy of MMA in a patient can be shown by comparing the preoperative with the postoperative AHI score. Surgical success is defined by the percentage of patients with >50% reduction of the AHI to fewer than 20 events/h after the MMA surgery, whereas surgical cure is defined after the MMA surgery with AHI fewer than 5 events/h.

Suspected patients – suffering from OSAS – underwent polysomnography test, lateral cephalography, three-dimensional cone-beam computed tomography, and nasopharyngeal endoscopy. Furthermore, they underwent clinical evaluation and answered a questionnaire regarding their symptoms.

In our 3-year study, a total of 88 patients underwent polysomnography test, from which, sixty were diagnosed with OSAS with AHI >5, and CPAP was proposed to 39 patients with AHI >15. MRDs were used in 37 patients out of the total 60 patients in the list as well as in 24 patients with AHI <5 but with severe clinical symptoms.

The MRDs have been used as an alternative to CPAP and as an index for future surgery.

Our team has surgically treated 14 patients (MMA) with an average mean AHI of 23.35/h and an ESS score of 13.28/24, preoperatively, resulting to AHI of 4.34/h and ESS of 1.71/24, respectively, postoperatively. Significant parameters such as airway volume (cm 3) (minimal cross-sectional area [mm 2]), PAS B-Pogonion, and PNS length were calculated, and the results are shown in Table 2. It is remarkable that the mean length of PAS B-Pogonion postoperatively is <+9 mm. Overall, our results conclude to 71.42% cure rate and 92.85% success rate. In addition, none of the patients had any clinical symptoms after surgery. There are four out of 14 cases in this list that did not show surgical cure; more specifically, two out of four of these patients were over 55 years old with central sleep apnea and the other two patients presented an increased body mass index pre- and postoperatively, but all of them did not have any clinical symptoms [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4].
Table 2: Pre- and postoperative airway morphology parameters

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Table 1: Patient demographic data

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Table 3: Surgical treatment plan

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Table 4: Pre- and postoperative sleep quality

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Our findings reflect the results of the study mentioned above. MMA surgery for the treatment of OSAS can be a highly successful surgery which may result in total healing of the syndrome. The MRDs may be used as an index for future surgery especially in cases with normal facial appearance, and the full documentation of the cases before and after surgery is vital.



 
  References Top

1.
Zaghi S, Holty JE, Certal V, Abdullatif J, Guilleminault C, Powell NB, et al. Maxillomandibular advancement for treatment of obstructive sleep apnea: A meta-analysis. JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2016;142:58-66.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Pirklbauer K, Russmueller G, Stiebellehner L, Nell C, Sinko K, Millesi G, et al. Maxillomandibular advancement for treatment of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome: A systematic review. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2011;69:e165-76.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Vicini C, Dallan I, Campanini A, De Vito A, Barbanti F, Giorgiomarrano G, et al. Surgery vs. ventilation in adult severe obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Am J Otolaryngol 2010;31:14-20.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Prinsell JR. Maxillomandibular advancement surgery for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. J Am Dent Assoc 2002;133:1489-97.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Hochban W, Conradt R, Brandenburg U, Heitmann J, Peter JH. Surgical maxillofacial treatment of obstructive sleep apnea. Plast Reconstr Surg 1997;99:619-26.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Goodday RH, Bourque SE, Edwards PB. Objective and subjective outcomes following maxillomandibular advancement surgery for treatment of patients with extremely severe obstructive sleep apnea (Apnea-Hypopnea Index and 100). J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2016;74:583-9.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Ubaldo ED, Greenlee GM, Moore J, Sommers E, Bollen AM. Cephalometric analysis and long-term outcomes of orthognathic surgical treatment for obstructive sleep apnoea. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2015;44:752-9.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Butterfield KJ, Marks PLG, McLean L, Newton J. Linear and Volumetric Airway Changes After Maxillomandibular Advancement for Obstructive Sleep Apnea. Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery 2015;73:1133-42. doi:10.1016/j.joms.2014.11.020.  Back to cited text no. 8
    



 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4]



 

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