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Year : 2017  |  Volume : 7  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 37-44

Treatment of micrognathia by intraoral distraction osteogenesis: A prospective study

1 Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Rajas Dental College and Hospital, Tirunelveli, India
2 Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Christian Medical College and Hospital, Vellore, India
3 Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Government Dental College and Hospital, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India

Correspondence Address:
T K Divakar
Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Rajas Dental College and Hospital, Kavalkinaru Junction, Tirunelveli - 627 105, Tamil Nadu
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DOI: 10.4103/ams.ams_181_16

PMID: 28713734

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Purpose: Maxillofacial deformities are always psychologically and physically distressing to the patients and is also challenging to the treating surgeons. The term Micrognathia means a “small jaw”. True micrognathia, where the maxilla or the mandibular skeleton does not grow to the full size can be congenital or acquired. Distraction osteogenesis also called as callus distraction or callostasis or osteodistraction or distraction histogenesis is a biological process of regenerating newly formed bone and adjacent soft tissue by a gradual and controlled traction of surgically separated bone segments. The purpose of this prospective study was to assess the versatility of distraction osteogenesis in the treatment of micrognathia. Materials and Methods: Four patients (three males and one female) with micrognathia of mandible were included in this prospective study. The patients were between the age group of 10-20 years. Facial asymmetry was the chief complaint of all the patients. In all the patients following treatment protocol was carried out, Osteotomy and placement of intraoral distraction device under general anaesthesia, latency phase (5-7 days), activation period-rate 1.5 mm per day, consolidation period of 8 weeks, removal of distraction device under local anaesthesia. The parameters assessed were ramus height, body length, hyo mental distance, posterior pharyngeal airway space, chin projection, facial symmetry occlusion, mid line shift pre and post operatively. Results: The mean increase in ramus height achieved was 9.2 + 2.17 mm and the mandibular body length achieved was 10.4+1.67 mm.There was an average increase in hyo-mental distance of 2.75 cm +0.9 cm postoperatively showing a definitive improvement in the airway. The posterior pharyngeal space measured from the lateral cephalogram preoperatively ranged from 3-6 mm and post operatively from 6-9 mm.Intraorally there was a shift in occlusion to class I molar relation in three patients and there was posterior open bite in one patient. Marked correction of facial asymmetry was noticed in all cases both clinically and in PA cephalogram. There was a restoration of dental as well as lip midline and improved lip competence. There was a significant improvement in chin projection and occlusal cant however further chin correction was needed in one case by means of advancement genioplasty. Conclusion: A definite improvement in all parameters such as body length,ramus height,chin projection,occlusal cant was observed in all patients. Moreover the patients were subjectively satisfied with the outcome of the results. Distraction Osteogenesis is definitely a boon to the oral and maxillofacial surgeons in treating large deficiencies of mandible in terms of stability

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