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Year : 2019  |  Volume : 9  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 289-314

Histological diversity, diagnostic challenges, and surgical treatment strategies of fibrous dysplasia of upper and mid-thirds of the craniomaxillofacial complex

Military Dental Centre (Gough Lines), Secunderabad, Telangana, India

Correspondence Address:
Priya Jeyaraj
Military Dental Centre (Gough Lines), Opposite 1 Trg Bn AOC Centre, Trimulgherry, Secunderabad - 500 015, Telangana
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DOI: 10.4103/ams.ams_219_19

PMID: 31909007

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Background: Owing to the overlapping clinical, radiographic and histopathological features among the diverse group of Fibro-osseous lesions, a precise and definitive diagnosis of Fibrous Dysplasia (FD) can be quite challenging. Moreover, FD itself may manifest with widely varying clinical presentations, radiographic appearances and histological pictures, depending upon the maturity of the lesion, and the relative quantum of its 'fibrous' and 'osseous components'. Prompt and accurate diagnosis of Fibrous Dysplasia (FD) of the Craniomaxillofacial region is particularly important, as the condition is capable of causing considerable facial asymmetry or deformity leading even to marked disfigurement, which can have a profound psychosocial impact on the patient. Involvement of Maxillofacial bones by aggressive forms of FD, can produce serious functional debility as well, by compromising airway, breathing, vision, hearing, occlusion, mastication and mouth opening. Calvarial bone involvement can produce cranial asymmetry, and cranial base involvement can lead to persistent headaches, facial pain, numbness, and other neurological deficits owing to compression of cranial nerves. Aims and Objectives: To evaluate the importance of early and precise diagnosis, with prompt surgical management of these lesions, for a successful overall esthetic and functional outcome. Materials and Methods: A Case series of 15 patients, showcasing the principal variants of FD affecting the Craniomaxillofacial complex, namely, the Monostotic and Craniofacial forms have been described. Diversity in their Clinical, Radiographic and Histopathological presentations; their management modalities elucidating the various surgical approaches employed to access and excise these bone pathologies, have been provided along with a review of existing literature. Results: Various surgical approaches may be employed to access the lesions, depending upon their location, extent and involvement. Treatment protocols range from complete surgical excision to surgical shaving and recontouring, and must be decided upon on a case to case basis, with the aim to achieve the best possible esthetic and functional outcome with the least postoperative morbidity. Conclusion: Correlation of HPE with history, clinical features, biological behaviour, radiographic and CT appearance, laboratory findings, and intra-operative findings is imperative, so that they can be distinguished from other bony lesions and an appropriate, ideal and effective treatment modality can be instituted in time, so as to achieve the most favourable esthetic and functional outcome.

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