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Year : 2020  |  Volume : 10  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 66-72

Square face correction by gonial angle and masseter reduction

Director and Consultant, Department of Craniomaxillofacial Surgery, Balaji Dental and Craniofacial Hospital, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. S M Balaji
Balaji Dental and Craniofacial Hospital, 30, KB Dasan Road, Teynampet, Chennai - 600 018, Tamil Nadu
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DOI: 10.4103/ams.ams_22_20

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Introduction: The association of mandibular gonial angle, facial height, and jaw relationship in masseteric hypertrophy (MH) has not been adequately described for the typical Indian population. The aim of this study was to report the gonial angle relationship with facial height parameters in cases diagnosed with bilateral MH and its possible influence on the treatment plan. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective study based on archival records of bilateral MH cases surgically treated over a 10-year period at the author's center. Patients' records fulfilling inclusion and exclusion criteria were considered for the study. Age, gender, upper anterior facial height (UAFH), lower anterior facial height (LAFH), upper posterior facial height (UPFH), ramus height (also a reflection of the lower posterior facial height), and gonial angle were collected along with the type of bite (open/normal/deep), surgical procedure (debulking with/without bone removal), and concomitant jaw bone corrections (yes/no). These were subjected to statistical analysis using SPSS, and P ≤ 0.05 was taken as statistically significant. Results: Overall, 21 patients formed the study group comprising 9 females and 12 males. Gender influenced the UAFH, LAFH, UPFH, ramus height, and gonial angle significantly. Males had higher values than females. Normal bite had an obtuse gonial angle than the deep bite, and the difference was statistically significant (P = 0.036). When the gonial angle was acute or square faced, the need for other surgical procedures was high and the difference was statistically significant (P = 00.048). Discussion and Conclusion: The results are discussed in the light of Indian skeletal anthropometry. The relationship of the gonial angle with facial height parameters in bilateral MH cases in this part of the world is presented.

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